2. If there was a fire broken out on a leased property and the landlord has suffered some losses as a result, can the landlord claim against the tenant?
It depends on the terms agreed by the landlord and the tenant in the tenancy agreement. It also depends on the cause of the fire (e.g. the source of the fire, was it a pure accident or was it caused by someone's negligence or even willful damage). In practice, it is not easy to determine who was at fault.
A prudent landlord will take out insurance policies to cover the relevant property and household damage. Loss of or damage to household contents such as furniture, decoration, electrical appliances and personal valuables can be insured. A typical example of such kind of insurance is a "Householder's Comprehensive" insurance.
Another important note is that the landlord has a duty to inform the insurance company that the flat/house is rented out to a tenant.
Subject to the terms of the relevant tenancy document, the tenant may also be required to take out proper insurance for the property.